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Bismarck and Germany 1862-1890

Bismarck and Germany 1862-1890

Williamson, D. G

Bismarck’s role in the unification and consolidation of Germany is central to any understanding of Germany's development as a nation and its consequent role as aggressor in two world wars. This study provides students with a concise, up-to-date and analytical account of Bismarck's role in modern German history. Williamson guides readers through the complex events leading to the defeats of Austria and France in 1866 and 1870 and the subsequent creation of a united Germany in January 1871. He then explores the domestic and foreign problems Bismarck faced up to 1890 in consolidating unification

Paperback, Book. English.
3rd ed.
Published Harlow: Longman, 2011
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Statement of responsibility: D.G. Williamson
ISBN: 140822318X, 9781408223185
Note: Includes bibliographical references and index.
Physical Description: xxxix, 171 p. : ill., maps ; 25 cm.
Subject: Bismarck, Otto, Fürst von, 1815-1898.; Germany History 1871-1918.; Germany History 1848-1870.

Contents

  1. Acknowledgements
  2. Chronology
  3. Who’s who
  4. Glossary
  5. Maps
  6. PART ONE: THE SETTING
  7. 1 The Background, 1815- 1862
  8. The German Confederation
  9. The Zollverein
  10. The Growth of German Nationalism
  11. The Growth of Liberalism
  12. Conservative Acceptance of Nationalism
  13. Catholicism and Nationalism
  14. The 1848 Revolutions
  15. The Radowitz Initiative and the Revival of the Confederation
  16. Austro-Prussian Relations, 1853-1859
  17. The Constitutional Conflict in Prussia
  18. Bismarck
  19. Bismarck’s Appointment as Prussian Minister-President
  20. PART TWO DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS
  21. 2 The Constitutional Conflict
  22. Confrontation with the Liberals
  23. The Liberals Divided
  24. 3 The German Question, 1860-66
  25. Public Opinion and German Unity: The Nationalverein and Reformverein
  26. Austro-Prussian rivalry and the reform of the Confederation, 1860-62
  27. Bismack and Austria, 1862-3
  28. The Schleswig Holstein Crisis, 1863-4
  29. The Options facing Bismarck
  30. From Schönbrunn to Bad Gastein
  31. Austria’s ‘Economic Königgratz’
  32. On the Brink of War
  33. The Austro-Prussian War
  34. The Home Front
  35. PART THREE: THE NORTH GERMAN CONFEDERATION
  36. 4. THE CREATION OF THE NORTH GERMAN CONFEDERATION, 1866–67
  37. The Prussian Indemnity Bill
  38. The Spoils of War
  39. The Constitution of the North German Confederation
  40. 5. BISMARCK, NAPOLEON AND THE SOUTHERN STATES
  41. The Luxemburg Crisis
  42. The Southern States and German Integration
  43. 6. THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR AND THE UNIFICATION OF
  44. GERMANY, 1870–71
  45. The Hohenzollern Candidature
  46. The Outbreak of War
  47. The unification of Kleindeutschland
  48. The Armistice and the Treaty of Frankfurt
  49. PART FOUR: THE ECONOMIC AND CONSTITUTIONAL
  50. CONTEXT, 1871–90
  51. 7. THE SECOND REICH: A HYBRID STATE
  52. The Administrative and Legislative Infrastructure
  53. The Problem of Prussia
  54. 8. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTS, 1871-90
  55. The impact on the Economy of the ‘Great Depression’
  56. Structural Changes in the German Economy
  57. The Political Consequences of the ‘Great Depression’
  58. PART FIVE: DOMESTIC POLITICS
  59. 9. THE KULTURKAMPF AND THE DECLINE OF THE NATIONAL LIBERALS
  60. A Bismarck-Liberal Axis?
  61. The Kulturkampf
  62. Protectionism and the End of the Liberal Era
  63. The Tariff Act of 1879
  64. 10. THE CONSERVATIVE EMPIRE
  65. The Second Foundation of the Reich
  66. Bismarck’s Loss of Control over the Reichstag
  67. Bismarck and the SPD
  68. Bismarck’s Social Welfare Programme
  69. Jews and Poles and the Policy of Germanisation
  70. The Formation of the Kartell and a Brief Period of Stabilization
  71. Bismarck’s Fall
  72. PART SIX: GERMAN FOREIGN AND COLONIAL POLICY
  73. 11. GERMANY AND EUROPE, 1871–90
  74. The League of the Three Emperors
  75. The Eastern Crisis, 1875–78
  76. The Dual Alliance and Three Emperors’ Alliance
  77. The Franco-German Entente
  78. The Bulgarian Crisis and its Consequences
  79. 12. THE CREATION OF THE GERMAN COLONIAL EMPIRE
  80. Bismarck’s Motives
  81. The Annexations in Africa and the Far East
  82. Bismarck’s Disillusion with the Colonies
  83. PART SEVEN: ASSESSMENT
  84. 13. BISMARCK IN MYTH AND REALITY
  85. Bismarck in Retirement
  86. His Achievements
  87. Bismarck and the Historians
  88. Conclusion
  89. PART EIGHT: DOCUMENTS
  90. 1 Arminius Riemann’s speech at the Wartburg Festival in 1817
  91. 2 The Historian A.J.P. Taylor on the 1848 Revolutions
  92. 3 The Economy and National Unity
  93. 4 The Nationalverein Programme, 1859
  94. 5 The Prussian Liberals Long for a German Cavour, 1861
  95. 6 King William and the Army Bill
  96. 7 Bismarck Foresees war with Austria
  97. 8 Bismarck and the German Confederation
  98. 9 Blood and Iron
  99. 10 Bismarck and Commercial Reform, 1865
  100. 11 The Internal Impact of Düppel
  101. 12 Liberal opposition to the War of 1866
  102. 13 Bismarck and Schleswig-Holstein
  103. 14 Bismarck Defends the Austria Alliance, February 1865
  104. 15 Financing mobilization, July 1865
  105. 16 The Gastein Convention, 14 August, 1865
  106. 17 Bismarck’s Peace Policy, July 1866
  107. 18 Russian and British views on Prussia’s victory, 1866
  108. 19The National Liberals and the North German Confederation
  109. 20 Bismarck on War, March 1867
  110. 21 Bismarck and German Unity in 1869
  111. 22 The Ems Telegram
  112. 23 French Partisans, December 1870
  113. 24 Military Impatience with Bismarck, December 1870
  114. 25 Alsace-Lorraine
  115. 26 Bismarck’s Power
  116. 27 Speculation Mania
  117. 28 The Industrialization of Germany
  118. 29 The Flight from the Land
  119. 30 Grain Prices
  120. 31 The Foundation of the Association for Reform of Taxation and Economy
  121. 32 Grassroots Support for Protection
  122. 33 Condition of the Urban Working Class in Germany, 1893
  123. 34 Reichstag Elections, 1871-1890
  124. 35 Annual Earnings of workers in Industries, Commerce and Transport, 1871-1913
  125. 36 Bismarck Attacks the Catholic Clergy
  126. 37 Bismarck’s Guiding Principle in Domestic Policy
  127. 38 A Liberal Academic Asseses Bismarck
  128. 39 Extracts from the Ant-Socialist Law, 1878
  129. 40 German Grain Tariffs
  130. 41 Rumours of a coup
  131. 42 The Conservative Bias of the Prussian Civil Service
  132. 43 Disagreement between WilliamII and Bismarck, January 1890
  133. 44 Bismarck declares Germany a satiated Power
  134. 45 Bismarck Defends the Dual Alliance
  135. 46 Separate Protocol to the Three Emperors’ Alliance, 18 June 1881
  136. 47 Atmosphere at St Petersburg, Autumn, 1886
  137. 48 Angra Pequena
  138. 49 German Historians as History
  139. 50 Hans-Ulrich Wehler’s interpretation of Bismarck’s Politics after 1871
  140. Guide to Further Reading
  141. References
  142. Index

Author note

David G. Williamson has written extensively on modern German history and international relations. Among his publications are Poland Betrayed: The Nazi Societ Invasions of 1939 (2009) and The Third Reich (4th edition 2010). Formerly head of History at Highgate School, he is now a writer and freelance lecturer.

Description

Bismarck’s role in the unification and consolidation of Germany is central to any understanding of Germany's development as a nation and its consequent role as aggressor in two world wars.

This study provides students with a concise, up-to-date and analytical account of Bismarck's role in modern German history. Williamson guides readers through the complex events leading to the defeats of Austria and France in 1866 and 1870 and the subsequent creation of a united Germany in January 1871. He then explores the domestic and foreign problems Bismarck faced up to 1890 in consolidating unification.

Back cover copy

David Williamson’s Bismarck and Germany has long been a definitive guide to Bismarck’s role in German history. A comprehensive and readable study, the book provides a balanced account of Bismarck as the father of the first 'unified' Germany and examines how he consolidated this new state.

 

Williamson shows how Bismarck skilfully exploited the economic strength of Prussia and the defeats of Austria and France in 1866 and 1870 to create a united Germany by 1871. The state Bismarck created was initially a workable compromise between the demands of the Liberals, the Prussian Crown and the individual states. However, by the 1880s the Bismarckian constitution had become a straitjacket that distorted the constitutional development of Germany up to 1918, despite the fact that it had many modern characteristics such as universal (manhood) suffrage and, by the standards of the time, an exemplary welfare system.

 

In this third edition, revised and updated to include recent studies of Bismarck, an expanded introduction extending back to 1815 allows students to place Bismarck's remarkable achievement of German unification in the context of political and economic developments in the preceding decades.

 

Supported by a comprehensive Documents section, and with a new colour plate section, this new edition of a classic text will be an invaluable resource for students and lecturers alike.

 

 

David Williamson has written extensively on modern German and International history. Among his publications are PolandBetrayed: The Nazi Soviet Invasions of 1939 (2009), and The Third Reich (fourth edition 2010). Formerly head of History at Highgate School, he is now a writer and freelance lecturer.