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Film history: an introduction

Film history: an introduction

Thompson, Kristin, 1950-; Bordwell, David

Written by two leading film scholars, "Film History: An Introduction" is a comprehensive survey of film - from the backlots of Hollywood, across the United States, and around the world. As in the authors' bestselling "Film Art", concepts and events are illustrated with actual frame enlargements, giving students more realistic points of reference than competing books that use publicity stills

Book. English.
2nd ed. International ed.
Published Boston: McGraw-Hill, c2003
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Details

Statement of responsibility: Kristin Thompson, David Bordwell
ISBN: 0070384290, 0071151419, 9780070384293, 9780071151412
Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 725-731) and index.
Physical Description: xx, 788 p., [12] p. of plates : ill. ; 28 cm.
Subject: Motion pictures History.

Contents

  1. Preface
  2. Introduction: Film History and How It Is Done
  3. Why Do We Care About Old Movies?
  4. What do Film Historians Do?
  5. Our Approach to Film History
  6. History as Story
  7. PART ONE: EARLY CINEMA
  8. 1 THE INVENTION AND EARLY YEARS OF THE CINEMA, 1880s-1904
  9. The Invention of the Cinema
  10. Preconditions for Motion Pictures
  11. Major Precursors of Motion Pictures
  12. An International Process of Invention
  13. Early Filmmaking and Exhibition
  14. Scenics, Topicals, and Fiction Films
  15. Creating an Appealing Program
  16. The Growth of the French Film Industry
  17. England and the "Brighton School"
  18. The United States: Competition and the Resurgence of Edison
  19. Notes and Queries
  20. Identification and Preservation of Early Films
  21. Reviving Interest in Early Cinema: The Brighton Conference
  22. References
  23. Further Reading
  24. 2 THE INTERNATIONAL EXPANSION OF THE CINEMA, 1905-1912
  25. Film Production in Europe
  26. France: Pathé versus Gaumont
  27. Italy: Growth through Spectacle
  28. Denmark: Nordisk and Ole Olsen
  29. Other Countries
  30. The Struggle for the Expanding American Film Industry
  31. The Nickeodeon Boom
  32. The Motion Picture Patents Company versus the Independents
  33. Social Pressures and Self-Censorship
  34. The Rise of the Feature Film
  35. The Star System
  36. The Movies Move to Hollywood
  37. The Problem of Narrative Clarity
  38. Early Moves toward Classical Storytelling
  39. Intertitles
  40. Camera Position and Acting
  41. Color
  42. Set Design and Lighting
  43. The Beginnings of the Continuity System
  44. An International Style
  45. Notes and Queries
  46. Griffith's Importance in the Development of Film Style
  47. References
  48. Further Reading
  49. 3 NATIONAL CINEMAs, HOLLYWOOD CLASSICISM, AND WORLD WAR I, 1913-1919
  50. The American Takeover of World Markets
  51. The Rise of National Cinemas
  52. Germany
  53. Italy
  54. Russia
  55. France
  56. Denmark
  57. Sweden
  58. The Classical Hollywood Cinema
  59. The Major Studios Begin to Form
  60. Controlling Filmmaking
  61. Filmmaking in Hollywood during the 1910s
  62. Films and Filmmakers
  63. Streamlining American Animation
  64. Small Producing Countries
  65. Notes and Queries
  66. The Ongoing Rediscovery of the 1910s
  67. Further Reading
  68. PART TWO: THE LATE SILENT ERA, 1919-1929
  69. 4 FRANCE IN THE 1920S
  70. The French Film Industry after World War I
  71. Competition from Imports
  72. Disunity within the Film Industry
  73. Outdated Production Facilities
  74. Major Postwar Genres
  75. The French Impressionist Movement
  76. The Impressionists' Relation to the Industry
  77. Impressionist Theory
  78. Formal Traits of Impressionism
  79. The End of French Impressionism
  80. The Filmmakers Go Their Own Ways
  81. Problems within the Film Industry
  82. Notes and Queries
  83. French Impressionist Theory and Criticism
  84. Restoration Work on Napoléon
  85. References
  86. Further Reading
  87. 5 GERMANY IN THE 1920s
  88. The German Situation after World War I
  89. Genres and Styles of German Postwar Cinema
  90. Spectacles
  91. The German Expressionist Movement
  92. Kammerspiel
  93. German Films Abroad
  94. Major Changes in the Mid- to Late 1920s
  95. The Technological Updating of the German Studios
  96. The End of Inflation
  97. The End of the Expressionist Movement
  98. New Objectivity
  99. Export and Classical Style
  100. Notes and Queries
  101. German Cinema and German Society
  102. Expressionism, New Objectivity, and the Other Arts
  103. References
  104. Further Reading
  105. 6 SOVIET CINEMA IN THE 1920s
  106. The Hardships of War Communism, 1918-1920
  107. Recovery under the New Economic Policy, 1921-1924
  108. Increased State Control and the Montage Movement, 1925-1930
  109. Growth and Export in the Film Industry
  110. The Influence of Constructivism
  111. A New Generation: The Montage Filmmakers
  112. The Theoretical Writings of Montage Filmmakers
  113. Soviet Montage Form and Style
  114. Other Soviet Films
  115. The Five-Year Plan and the End of the Montage Movement
  116. Notes and Queries
  117. Film Industry and Governmental Policy: A Tangled History
  118. The Kuleshov Effect
  119. The Russian Formalists and the Cinema
  120. References
  121. Further Reading
  122. 7 THE LATE SILENT ERA IN HOLLYWOOD, 1920-1928
  123. Theater Chains and the Structure of the Industry
  124. Vertical Integration
  125. Picture Palaces
  126. The Big Three and the Little Five
  127. The Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America
  128. Studio Filmmaking
  129. Style and Technological Changes
  130. Big-Budget Films of the 1920s
  131. New Investments and Blockbusters
  132. Genres and Directors
  133. Foreign Filmmakers in Hollywood
  134. Films for African-American Audiences
  135. The Animated Part of the Program
  136. Notes and Queries
  137. The Rediscovery of Buster Keaton
  138. References
  139. Further Reading
  140. 8 INTERNATIONAL TRENDS OF THE 1920s
  141. "Film Europe"
  142. Concrete Steps toward Co-operation
  143. Success Cut Short
  144. The "International Style"
  145. Carl Dreyer: European Director
  146. Film Experiments Outside the Mainstream Industry
  147. Documentary Features Gain Prominence
  148. Commercial Filmmaking Internationally
  149. Japan
  150. Great Britain
  151. Italy
  152. Some Small Producing Countries
  153. Notes and Queries
  154. Different Versions of Silent Classics
  155. References
  156. Further Reading
  157. PART THREE: THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOUND CINEMA, 1926-1945
  158. 9 THE INTRODUCTION OF SOUND
  159. Sound in the United States
  160. Warner Bros. and Vitaphone
  161. Sound-on-Film Is Adopted
  162. Sound and Filmmaking
  163. Germany Challenges Hollywood
  164. Dividing the International Pie
  165. The Early Sound Era in Germany
  166. The USSR Pursues Its Own Path to Sound
  167. The International Adoption of Sound
  168. France
  169. Great Britain
  170. Japan
  171. Wiring the World's Theaters for Sound
  172. Crossing the Language Barrier
  173. Notes and Queries
  174. Filmmakers on the Coming of Sound
  175. Sound and the Revision of Film History
  176. References
  177. Further Reading
  178. 10 THE HOLLYWOOD STUDIO SYSTEM, 1930-1945
  179. The New Structure of the Film Industry
  180. The Big Five
  181. The Little Three
  182. The Independents
  183. Exhibition Practice in the 1930s
  184. Continued Innovation in Hollywood
  185. Sound Recording
  186. Camera Movement
  187. Technicolor
  188. Special Effects
  189. Cinematography Styles
  190. Major Directors
  191. The Older Generation
  192. New Directors
  193. Émigré Directors
  194. Genre Innovations and Transformations
  195. The Musical
  196. The Screwball Comedy
  197. The Horror Film
  198. The Social Problem Film
  199. The Gangster Film
  200. Film Noir
  201. The War Film
  202. Animation and the Studio System
  203. Notes and Queries
  204. The Controversy over Orson Welles
  205. References
  206. Further Reading
  207. 11 OTHER STUDIO SYSTEMS
  208. Quota Quickies and Wartime Pressures: The British Studios
  209. The British Film Industry Grows
  210. Export Successes
  211. Alfred Hitchcock's Thrillers
  212. Crisis and Recovery
  213. The Effects of the War
  214. Innovation within an Industry: The Studio System of Japan
  215. Popular Cinema of the 1930s
  216. The Pacific War
  217. India: An Industry Built on Music
  218. A Highly Fragmented Business
  219. Mythologicals, Socials, Devotionals
  220. Independents Weaken the System
  221. China: Filmmaking Caught between Left and Right
  222. Notes and Queries
  223. Japanese Cinema Rediscovered
  224. References
  225. Further Reading
  226. 12 Cinema and the State: The USSR, Germany, and Italy, 1930-1945
  227. The Soviet Union: Socialist Realism and World War II
  228. Films of the Early 1930s
  229. The Doctrine of Socialist Realism
  230. The Main Genres of Socialist Realism
  231. The Soviet Cinema in Wartime
  232. The German Cinema under the Nazis
  233. The Nazi Regime and the Film Industry
  234. Films of the Nazi Era
  235. The Aftermath of the Nazi Cinema
  236. Italy: Propaganda versus Entertainment
  237. Industry Tendencies
  238. A Cinema of Distraction
  239. A New Realism?
  240. Notes and Queries
  241. The Case of Leni Riefenstahl
  242. References
  243. Further Reading
  244. 13 FRANCE: POETIC REALISM, THE POPULAR FRONT AND THE OCCUPATION, 1930-1945
  245. The Industry and Filmmaking during the 1930s
  246. Production Problems and Artistic Freedom
  247. Quality Studio Filmmaking
  248. Émigrés in France
  249. Everyday Realism
  250. Poetic Realism
  251. Doomed Lovers, Atmospheric Settings
  252. The Creative Burst of Jean Renoir
  253. Brief Interlude: The Popular Front
  254. Filmmaking in Occupied and Vichy France
  255. The Situation of the Film Industry
  256. Films of the Occupation Period
  257. Notes and Queries
  258. Renewed Interest in the Popular Front
  259. Reference
  260. Further Reading
  261. 14 LEFTIST, DOCUMENTARY, AND EXPERIMENTAL CINEMA, 1930-1945
  262. The Spread of Political Cinema
  263. The United States
  264. Germany
  265. Belgium and the Netherlands
  266. Great Britain
  267. International Leftist Filmmaking in the Late 1930s
  268. Government- and Corporate-sponsored Documentaries
  269. The United States
  270. Great Britain
  271. Wa
  272. rtime Documentaries
  273. Hollywood Directors and the War
  274. Great Britain
  275. Germany and the USSR
  276. The International Experimental Cinema
  277. Experimental Narratives and Lyrical Films
  278. Surrealism
  279. Animation
  280. References
  281. Further Reading
  282. PART FOUR: THE POSTWAR ERA, 1946-1960s
  283. 15 AMERICAN CINEMA IN THE POSTWAR ERA, 1946-1960
  284. 1946/1947/1948
  285. The HUAC Hearings: The Cold War Reaches Hollywood
  286. The Paramount Decision
  287. The Decline of the Hollywood Studio System
  288. Changing Lifestyles and Competing Entertainment
  289. Wider and More Colorful Movies
  290. Hollywood Adjusts to Television
  291. Art Cinemas and Drive-ins
  292. Challenges to Censorship
  293. The New Power of the Individual Film
  294. Roadshow Distribution and Exhibition
  295. The Rise of the Independents
  296. Mainstream Independents: Agents, Star Power, and the Package
  297. Exploitation
  298. Independents on the Fringes
  299. Classical Hollywood Filmmaking: A Continuing Tradition
  300. Complexity and Realism in Storytelling
  301. Stylistic Changes
  302. New Twists on Old Genres
  303. Major Directors: Several Generations
  304. Veterans of the Studio Era
  305. Émigrés Stay On
  306. Welles's Struggle with Hollywood
  307. The Impact of the Theater
  308. New Directors
  309. Notes and Queries
  310. Widescreen Formats in Subsequent History
  311. References
  312. Further Reading
  313. 16 POSTWAR EUROPEAN CINEMA: NEOREALISM AND ITS CONTEXT, 1945-1959
  314. The Postwar Context
  315. Film Industries and Film Culture
  316. West Germany: "Papas Kino"
  317. Resistance to U.S. Encroachment
  318. Art Cinema: The Return of Modernism
  319. Italy: Neorealism and After
  320. Italian Spring
  321. Defining Neorealism
  322. Beyond Neorealism
  323. A Spanish Neorealism?
  324. Notes and Queries
  325. Controversies around Neorealism
  326. References
  327. Further Reading
  328. 17 POSTWAR EUROPEAN CINEMA: FRANCE, SCANDINAVIA, AND BRITAIN, 1945-1959
  329. French Cinema of the Postwar Decade
  330. The Industry Recovers
  331. The Tradition of Quality
  332. The Return of Older Directors
  333. New Independent Directors
  334. Scandinavian Revival
  335. England: Quality and Comedy
  336. Problems in the Industry
  337. Literary Heritage and Eccentricity
  338. Arthouse Success Abroad
  339. Notes and Queries
  340. Postwar French Film Theory
  341. The Powell-Pressburger Revival
  342. References
  343. Further Reading
  344. 18 POSTWAR CINEMA BEYOND THE WEST, 1945-1959
  345. General Tendencies
  346. Japan
  347. Industry Recovery under the Occupation
  348. The Veteran Directors
  349. The War Generation
  350. Postwar Cinema in the Soviet Sphere of Influence
  351. The USSR from High Stalinism to the Thaw
  352. Obstacles of the Postwar Years
  353. Stalin's Death and the New Humanism
  354. Postwar Cinema in Eastern Europe
  355. People's Republic of China
  356. Civil War and Revolution
  357. Mixing Maoism and Tradition
  358. India
  359. A Disorganized but Prolific Industry
  360. The Populist Tradition and Raj Kapoor
  361. Swimming Against the Stream: Guru Dutt and Ritwik Ghatak
  362. Latin America
  363. Argentina and Brazil
  364. The Mexican Popular Cinema
  365. Notes and Queries
  366. De-Stalinization and the Disappearing Act
  367. References
  368. Further Reading
  369. 19 ART CINEMA AND THE IDEA OF AUTHORSHIP
  370. The Rise and Spread of the Auteur Theory
  371. Authorship and the Growth of the Art Cinema
  372. Luis Buñuel (190-1983)
  373. Ingmar Bergman (1918- )
  374. Akira Kurosawa (1910-1998)
  375. Federico Fellini (1920-1993)
  376. Michelangelo Antonioni (1912- )
  377. Robert Bresson (1907-1999)
  378. Jacques Tati (1908-1982)
  379. Satyajit Ray (1921-1992)
  380. Notes and Queries
  381. The Impact of Auteurism
  382. Auteurism and the American Cinema
  383. 1950s and 1960s Modernist Cinema
  384. References
  385. Further Reading
  386. 20 NEW WAVES AND YOUNG CINEMA, 1958-1967
  387. The Industries' New Needs
  388. Formal and Stylistic Trends
  389. France: New Wave and New Cinema
  390. The New Wave
  391. French New Cinema: The Left Bank
  392. Italy: Young Cinema and Spaghetti Westerns
  393. Great Britain: "Kitchen Sink" Cinema
  394. Young German Film
  395. New Cinema in the USSR and Eastern Europe
  396. Young Cinema in the Soviet Union
  397. New Waves in Eastern Europe
  398. The Japanese New Wave
  399. Brazil: Cinema Nôvo
  400. Notes and Queries
  401. Censorship and the French New Wave
  402. New Film Theory
  403. References
  404. Further Reading
  405. 21 DOCUMENTARY AND EXPERIMENTAL CINEMA IN THE POSTWAR ERA,1945-MID-1960s
  406. Toward the Personal Documentary
  407. Innovative Trends
  408. The National Film Board and "Free Cinema"
  409. France: The Auteurs' Documentaries
  410. Jean Rouch and Ethnographic Documentary
  411. Direct Cinema
  412. The United States: Drew and Associates
  413. Direct Cinema in Bilingual Canada
  414. France: Cinéma vérité
  415. Experimental and Avant-garde Cinema
  416. Abstraction, Collage, and Personal Expression
  417. Underground and Expanded Cinema
  418. Stretching the Limits of Taste and the Medium
  419. Notes and Queries
  420. Writing the History of the Postwar Avant-garde
  421. References
  422. Further Reading
  423. PART FIVE: THE CONTEMPORARY CINEMA SINCE THE 1960s
  424. 22 HOLLYWOOD'S FALL AND RISE, 1960-1980
  425. 1960s: The Film Industry in Recession
  426. The 1960s Crisis
  427. Styles and Genres in the 1960s
  428. Modifying the Classical Studio Style
  429. Identifying the Audience
  430. The New Hollywood: Late 1960s-Late 1970s
  431. Toward and American Art Cinema
  432. The 1970s: Hollywood Strikes Gold
  433. The Return of the Blockbuster
  434. Hollywood Updated
  435. Scorsese as Synthesis
  436. Opportunities for Independents
  437. Notes and Queries
  438. The American Director as Superstar
  439. Film Consciousness and Film Preservation
  440. Exploitation Films and Connoisseurs of "Weird Movies"
  441. References
  442. Further Reading
  443. 23 POLITICALLY CRITICAL CINEMA OF THE 1960s AND 1970s
  444. Political Filmmaking in the Third World
  445. Revolutionary Aspirations
  446. Political Genres and Styles
  447. Latin America
  448. Black African Cinema
  449. China: Cinema and the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution
  450. Political Filmmaking in the First and Second Worlds
  451. Eastern Europe and the USSR
  452. Political Cinema in the West
  453. Political Modernism
  454. The Politicization of Mainstream Narrative and the Art Film
  455. New Cinema in West Germany: The Political Wing
  456. Notes and Queries
  457. Defining Third World Revolutionary Cinema
  458. Film Studies and the New Film Theory
  459. References
  460. Further Reading
  461. 24 DOCUMENTARY AND EXPERIMENTAL FILM SINCE THE LATE 1960s
  462. Documentary Cinema
  463. Direct Cinema and Its Legacy
  464. The Questioning of Documentary
  465. From Structuralism to Pluralism in Avant-garde Cinema
  466. Structural Film
  467. Reactions and Alternatives to Structural Film
  468. New Mergers
  469. Notes and Queries
  470. Rethinking Documentary
  471. The Idea of Structure
  472. The Avant-garde and Postmodernism
  473. References
  474. Further Reading
  475. 25 NEW CINEMAS AND NEW DEVELOPMENTS: EUROPE AND THE USSR SINCE THE 1970s
  476. Western Europe
  477. Crisis in the Industry
  478. The Art Cinema Revived: Toward Accessibility
  479. The Arresting Image
  480. Eastern Europe and the USSR
  481. Eastern Europe: From Reform to Revolution
  482. The USSR: The Final Thaw and Its Aftermath
  483. Notes and Queries
  484. The New German Cinema
  485. References
  486. Further Reading
  487. 26 BEYOND THE INDUSTRIALIZED WEST: LATIN AMERICA, THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION, THE MIDDLE EAST, AND AFRICA SINCE THE 1970s
  488. Latin America: Accessibility and Decline
  489. Brazil
  490. Argentina and Elsewhere
  491. Mexico
  492. Cuba and Other Left-Wing Cinemas
  493. Recent Trends
  494. India: A Parallel Cinema
  495. New Cinemas in East Asia and the Pacific Rim
  496. The Philippines
  497. Hong Kong
  498. Taiwan
  499. Mainland China: The Fifth Generation and Their Successors
  500. Japan
  501. Australia
  502. New Zealand
  503. Notes and Queries
  504. Pinning the Tail on Pinochet
  505. Storytelling in Third World Cinema
  506. PART SIX: CINEMA IN THE AGE OF ELECTRONIC MEDIA
  507. 27 AMERICAN CINEMA AND THE ENTERTAINMENT ECONOMY: THE 1980s AND AFTER
  508. Hollywood, Movies, and Videotape
  509. Concentration and Consolidation in the Film Industry
  510. The Megapix Mentality
  511. The Bottom Line
  512. Prime Packagers
  513. New Revenue Streams
  514. Megaplexing: The New Face of Exhibition
  515. Artistic Trends
  516. Form and Style
  517. Directors: Coming to Terms with Megapix
  518. Genres
  519. A New Age of Independent Cinema
  520. Support Systems
  521. The Arty Indies
  522. Off- Hollywood Indies
  523. Retro-Hollywood Independents
  524. Digital Cinema
  525. Notes and Queries
  526. Video Versions
  527. George Lucas: Is Film Dead?
  528. References
  529. Further Reading
  530. 28 TOWARD A GLOBAL FILM CULTURE
  531. Hollyworld?
  532. The Media Conglomerates
  533. Cooperation and Cooptation
  534. Battles over GATT
  535. Multiplexing the Planet
  536. Regional Trends and the New International Film
  537. Europe and Asia Try to Compete
  538. Media Empires
  539. Global Films from Europe
  540. East Asia: Regional Alliances and Global Effo
  541. rts
  542. Global Diasporas
  543. The Festival Circuit
  544. Global Subcultures
  545. Video Piracy: An Efficient Distribution System?
  546. Fan Subcultures: Appropriating the Movies
  547. Digital Convergence
  548. The Internet as Movie Billboard
  549. Digital Moviemaking
  550. Notes and Queries
  551. Akira, Gundam, Sailor Moon, and Their Friends
  552. Auteurs on the Web
  553. References
  554. Further Reading
  555. Bibliography
  556. Glossary
  557. Index