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Implications of integrating women into the Marine Corps infantry

Implications of integrating women into the Marine Corps infantry

Schaefer, Agnes Gereben, author; Nichols, Todd, author; Oak, Gillian S., author; Wong, Jonathan P., author; Kavanagh, Jennifer, 1981- author; Wenger, Jennie W., author; Trail, Thomas, 1967- author

This study for the U.S. Marine Corps consisted of four tasks: (1) review the literature on the integration of women in ground combat and other physically demanding occupations, (2) conduct interviews with representatives of organizations that have integrated women into physically demanding occupations, (3) estimate the costs of potential initiatives to promote successful gender integration, and (4) develop an approach for monitoring implementation of gender integration of the infantry. RAND researchers present a historical overview of the integration of women into the U.S. military and explore the importance of cohesion and what influences it. The gender integration experiences of foreign militaries, as well as those of domestic police and fire departments, are examined for insights on effective policies. The potential one-time and recurring costs associated with integration are estimated as well. The report culminates in a summary of previous monitoring efforts and broad strategic monitoring issues, as well as recommendations to the Marine Corps for implementation

eBook, Electronic resource, Book. English. Electronic books.
Published Santa Monica, Calif. : RAND 2015

This resource is available electronically from the following locations


Statement of responsibility: Agnes Gereben Schaefer, Jennie W. Wenger, Jennifer Kavanagh, Jonathan P. Wong, Gillian S. Oak, Thomas E. Trail, Todd Nichols
ISBN: 0833092030, 0833092669, 9780833092038, 9780833092663
Note: "RAND National Defense Research Institute"--PDF back cover page.
Note: Online resource; title from PDF cover page (RAND, viewed December 11, 2015).
Note: Includes bibliographical references (pages 173-186).
Physical Description: 1 online resource (xxviii, 186 pages) : illustrations.
Series: Research report (Rand Corporation) ; RR-1103-USMC.
Subject: Women and the military United States.; HISTORY Military Other.; Women in combat United States.; United States. Marine Corps.; Women in combat.; Women soldiers.; TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING Military Science.; Women marines; Women marines.; Women and the military.; United States.; Armed Forces Personnel management.; United States. Marine Corps Personnel management.; Women soldiers United States.
Series Title: Research report (Rand Corporation) ; RR-1103-USMC.
Local note: JSTOR Books at JSTOR Open Access


  1. Introduction
  2. History of Integrating Women into the U.S. Military
  3. Research on Cohesion
  4. Insights on Critical Mass
  5. Lessons Learned from the Experiences of Foreign Militaries
  6. Lessons Learned from the Experiences of Domestic Police and Fire Departments
  7. Integrating the Marine Corps Infantry: Representation and Costs
  8. Developing a Monitoring Framework
  9. Cross-Cutting Implications and Recommendations for Implementation
  10. Appendix A. Rubric for Evaluating USMC Infantry Characteristics
  11. Appendix B. Summary of FDNY Postintegration Lawsuits
  12. Appendix C. Regression Results
  13. Appendix D. Monitoring Framework
  14. Appendix E. Approach to Developing a Monitoring Framework.