Newcastle was a key cog in the national war effort despite its northerly location, located on the key East Coast it played a significant military and civil role in the war. Newcastle is situated on the strategically important River Tyne and was well defended against enemy attack with several forts and other measures in place. Newcastle, a largely urban industrial community, was home to key wartime industries with its shipbuilding yards building and repairing huge numbers of vessels, both naval and merchant, throughout the war and its munitions and heavy engineering also making key contributions (especially in the construction and fitting of heavy naval guns). This made the town a significant target for the Luftwaffe and several determined raids were made which inflicted heavy casualties, especially during 1941
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